Environment

Description of activities:

Consistently with EU H2020 programming and with the Regione Lazio strategy, the six AdR RM1 CNR institutes active in the research area of Environment promote collaborations with enterprises operating at regional and/or national scale, in order to transfer technologies and expertise, locally developed thanks to national and international projects. To properly value the goals achieved by these Institutes within the transversal theme of Sustainability and Environmental Quality implies also taking into consideration the extraordinary advantages deriving from the overregional character of the CNR multidisciplinary scientific network, which can efficiently direct toward a specific territory highly qualified competences and know-how, able to provide a proper answer to the several requests coming from the productive system.Consistently with EU H2020 programming and with the Regione Lazio strategy, the six AdR RM1 CNR institutes active in the research area of Environment promote collaborations with enterprises operating at regional and/or national scale, in order to transfer technologies and expertise, locally developed thanks to national and international projects. To properly value the goals achieved by these Institutes within the transversal theme of Sustainability and Environmental Quality implies also taking into consideration the extraordinary advantages deriving from the overregional character of the CNR multidisciplinary scientific network, which can efficiently direct toward a specific territory highly qualified competences and know-how, able to provide a proper answer to the several requests coming from the productive system.
The CNR Institutes intensively work to develop and transfer innovative services aimed at improving the well-being and safety of citizens, with the primary goal of encouraging the demand by enterprises for new green products and processes, which, as it was largely demonstrated, have the highest potential in activating new economy sectors (green jobs), thus fostering the economic growth.
The activities carried out include:

  • Planning and optimization of the use of renewable sources.
  • Methodologies and Protocols for improving energy efficiency, thermal efficiency, and the efficiency of the use of resources.
  • Development and engineering of advanced sensors and smart networks for environmental monitoring (air, water, soil, forest ecosystems).
  • Development and operational use of  technologies  and innovative observation technologies integrated by numerical modeling for monitoring, analysis and forecasting of pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, lakes, rivers and sea (from industrial plants, heating systems and transportation) as well as for extreme event warning systems (e.g. air/sea pollution alert, weather-hydrological alert).
  • Promotion of sustainable organizational/ functional management models aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Development of technologies and advanced systems for the safeguarding and sustainable use of cultural heritage.
  • Development of multi-parameter and multisensor networks for ground and satellite environmental monitoring in order to produce useful data to implement strategies aimed at protecting the territory, health and safety of the citizens as well as mitigating the effects of climate change and reducing the environmental risks.
  • Development of innovative technologies for the treatment of organic and inorganic components of agricultural waste and urban solid wastes in order to reduce the fraction of waste for landfill disposal;
  • Development of energy-enhancing technologies for the Urban Solid Waste Organic Fraction (FORSU) and sewage sludge;
  • Development of intelligent systems for the management and minimization of special waste;
  • Development of innovative systems for the production of energy from renewable sources and minimization of environmental impact;
  • Certification of energy production plants from last generation renewable sources under current and ongoing legislation;
  • Development of systems for production of inert combustion products to produce a zero waste cycle;
  • Production of intelligent systems for the management of networks of small plants distributed in urban and rural communities for the production of energy by biomass;
  • Development of innovative and sustainable technological systems for the abatement of eutrophic compounds and inorganic and organic contaminants, and the recovery of energy and matter from civil and industrial wastewater;
  • Development of innovative environmentally-friendly processes for the recovery of strategic metals from raw materials and secondary raw materials such as electrical and electronic equipment waste, industrial and agro-industrial wastes, exhausted catalysts, handicraft waste etc.

Keywords:
Sustainability and environmental quality, renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, environmental monitoring, recycling and energy recovery from waste.

INSTITUTES

EXPERTISE

FACILITIES

(IC)

  • The biosensors laboratory is equipped with electrochemical, optical and spectrophotometric instruments, potentiostats and microfluidic devices, tools developed for biosensor validation including surface plasmon resonance (SPR), high performance liquid chromatography, spectrophotometers for the development of biorecceptors labeled with fluorescent probes, automatic synthesizers for the production of artificial biorecceptors for biosensors purposes. Specifically, the infrastructure allows studies of: molecular dynamics and molecular engineering for the design of new ad hoc synthetic bioreceptors, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV / VIS for biophysical characterization and study of interaction between biological macromolecules; development of natural or biomimetic bioreceptors; marking methodologies with fluorescent probes and nanomaterial; immobilization techniques; hybrid-biological synthesis for the construction of optoelectronic devices; optimization of electro-optical transduction systems.
  • Laboratory equipped for the cultivation of microalgae;
  • Chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology laboratories;
  • Laboratory for the study of photosynthesis;
  • Biosensoristics laboratory.

(IGAG)

  • Use and management of Hydrometallurgy, Electrochemistry and Precious Metals laboratories (cyanurisation), with related instruments and equipment.
  • Powder Dust X-ray diffractometer Bruker D8 advance 
  • X Spectro Xepos X-ray Spectrophotometer
  • Analyzers of granulometry by laser diffraction model Sympatec Hlos and Cilas
  • TG-DTA Thermobalance, model TA Instruments
  • Electronic scanning microscope model FEI quanta 400.
  • Portable instrumentation for measurement of interstitial gas in soil:
  • DRAGER X-am 7000 is a portable instrument that allows you to measure CO2, CH4, O2, H2 and H2S concentrations. The instrument is connected to the silicon tube sampling probe and pumps the gas sample through an internal membrane pump. Instrument accuracy is <5%.
  • RAD7 Durridge® alpha spectrometer (Figure X), used to measure radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn), consists of an electrostatic chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.7 liters. This instrument is equipped with a solid state detector for radon and thoron detection introduced into the instrument by means of a 1 l / min membrane pump. The radon and thoron decay produces positively charged polonium isotopes that are collected on the sensitive surface of the detector due to the electric field. The measure consists of a minimum of 15 minutes, as the radonmeter measures, every 5 minutes, the alpha particles emitted by the 218Po and 216Po decays and their daugther particles, and only starting from the third lecture on the value recorded by the instrument can be considered reliable, having cleaned the system with the previous readings. The minimum measurable radonmeter activity is 500 Bq / m3.
  • Portable Methane Laser Inspectra® Portable Detector developed by Gazomat ™ using high-tech laser spectrometry advanced technology coupled with a multipassing cell. The technology provides 1 ppm sensitivity and total selectivity to methane. The instrument is also designed for detection of methane gas leaks from distribution networks. Laser technology offers a dynamic measurement ranging from 1 to 100% v / v. The instrument is provided with standard European certification ATEX for explosion levels.
  • Seismograph Manager with 5-second 3-component Lennartz (Lennartz® LE-3D / 5s) and SARA-type sensors, SARA electronic instruments data acquisition and GPS scanners, for defining the fundamental frequency of F0 site.
  • 24 bits Seismograph Manager for 24-channel seismic exploration (geophones with 4.5 Hz 24 vertical and 24 horizontal cut-off frequencies) for geophysical investigations conducted in passive (Multichannel Seismic Antenna) and active (MASW) mode for defining the profile of vs.
  • Down hole Dual hole sensor operator with a 50 m length cable. Each S3 sensor consists of three channels with a 4.5 Hz cut-off frequency (1 vertical component, 2 horizontal), for geophysical investigations conducted in active mode for defining Vs profile.

(IIA)

  • Arnaldo Liberti experimental station at AdR RM1, for continuous observation of air quality and carrying out measurement campaigns.
  • Instrumentation for low, medium and high airborne atmospheric particulate sampling; silent samplers for indoor environments.
  • Equipment for chemical and morphological analysis of atmospheric particulates: XRF, TOA, IC, HPAEC-PAD, ICP-MS, optical microscope.
  • Modulo clean-air, mask aligner, evaporatore da vuoto, electrospinning technology, spettrofotometria da banco e portatile, microscopia a forza atomica, microscopia ottica, potenziostati, elettrometri, forni da incubazione, forni per calcinazione,stampante 3D, lampada UV-500W Clean-air module, mask aligner, vacuum evaporator, electrospinning technology, desk and portable spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, potentiostats, electrometers, incubation furnaces, calcining ovens, 3D printer, UV-500W lamp.
  • Prototype of Multi-stage solid-liquid anaerobic digestor.
  • Prototype of Aerobic composting.
  • Prototype for upgrading of biogas to biomethane by means of PSA (pressure swing adsorption) technology with natural zeolites.
  • Chemical Laboratory for Analysis and Testing.
  • Use of computing platforms for processing and analyzing remote sensing images.
  • Spectroradiometer for field and laboratory measurements.
  • Multispectral and thermal cameras.
  • Quadruple (mono and triple) mass spectrometers and ion trap coupled to gas chromatographs for the identification and measurement of environmental or emission organic microinquinants .
  • Liquid chromatograph equipped with UV absorbers (l multiple) and fluorescence detectors. Instruments for permeation chromatography on gel for the preparation of environmental samples after instrumental chemical analysis.
  • Use and management of workstations for numerical processing and modeling.

(IRET)

  • Equipment for the measurement of chlorophyll emission “a” fluorescence by means of an image analysis fluorimeter. (IMAGING – PAM, Walz, Germany);
  • X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (ED-XRF) for the identification and determination of heavy metals;
  • Leave gaseous exchange Measurement System (HCM – 1000, Walz, Germany);
  • In vitro plant culture laboratory;
  • International Bank of fungal germplasm;
  • Horizontal laminar flow cap, equipped with UV rays;
  • Growth chamber with white light fluorescent lamps;
  • Platform for the growth of semi-hydroponic plants in an outdoor environment (Mesocosmi);
  • Mass Spectrometry Laboratory with Proton Transfer Spectrometry System (PTR-MS);
  • Laboratory of eco-physiology, with infrared gas analyzers (IRGA), chlorophyll fluorescence detectors, also for imaging, portable spectral spectroradiometer for measurement of plants spectral signature;
  • Liquid phase (HPLC) and gas (GC) chromatography laboratory
  • Molecular Biology Laboratory with RT-PCR
  • Forest Ecology Laboratory
  • Eddy-covarianced experimental stations for measuring gaseous exchanges in the forest

(IRSA)

  • Laboratory reactors equipped with a computerized control system
  • Instrumentation for on-line analysis of operating parameters such as dissolved oxygen and pH
  • Software packages for modeling and control of biological wastewater treatment processes.
  • Anaerobic reactors with volumes ranging from 0.3 to 10 l, in glass and / or stainless steel, equipped for feeding and bleaching daily substrates so as to evaluate the process performance at varying applied organic loads.
  • Continuous measurement systems for methane and / or biogas production
  • Chemical, mechanical or thermal pre-treatment systems for reducing sludge production
  • Analytical systems for monitoring physical-chemical and sludge characteristics in sludges by advanced instrumentation such as HPLC-MS (or UV), GC-MS and UV-VIS spectrophotometers.
  • Advanced Mathematical Modeling Software.
  • Microbial Ecology Laboratory and Epifluorescence Microscopy.
  • Conduction and management of bio-digestors at laboratory scale (3 to 10 l) equipped with advanced systems of continuous biogas and methane authomatic measuring;
  • Laboratory dedicated to the characterization of organic substances (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) in FORSU, agro-industrial waste, residual biomass;
  • AMPTS (Bioprocess Control) equipment for determining meta-gene potential of waste and biomass, with real-time performance monitoring.
  • Sampling of undergroundwater, instrumentation for the measurement of chemical-physical parameters in field, analysis of the ionic chromatograph and ICP-MS.
  • Bioelectrochemical reactors;
  • Multichannel potentiostats / galvanostats;
  • GC-FID;
  • GC-TCD;
  • GC-MS.
  • Epifluorescence microscopy,
  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-MS, HPLC-MS / MS, HPLC-UV / Fluorescence)
  • Gas chromatography (GC-MS, GC-FID / ECD),
  • Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS),
  • Spectrophotometry, Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE),
  • Solid Phase Extraction (SPE),
  • Elementary Analyzer C / H / N / S,
  • Thermostatic chamber.
  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-MS, HPLC-MS / MS, HPLC-UV / Fluorescence)
  • Gas chromatography (GC-MS, GC-FID / ECD),
  • Spectrophotometry,
  • Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE)
  • Epifluorescence microscope.
  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-MS / MS, HPLC-UV / Fluorescence),
  • Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS),
  • Solid Phase Extraction (SPE),
  • Dissolved Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOC),
  • Tangential Flux Ultrafiltration System,
  • Flow Cytometry,
  • Fluorimetry.
  • Mathematical modeling processes of anaerobic digestion processes for the production of methane and dark fermentation for the production of hydrogen.
  • Atomic absorption with graphite furnace (THGA-AAS, Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 800) for the determination of heavy metals and metalloids also in trace;
  • Atomic absorption coupled with a hydride generation system for the specificization of compounds such as arsenic, selenium in fractions of ppb graphite (FIAS.HG-AAS, Fias400 coupled to Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 800);
  • Inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for multi-element trace element detection (Agilent 7500)
  • ICPMS coupled column separation system (LC-ICPMS) for specialization identification of metals and metallorganic species.
  • Microwave digester for high temperature and pressure acidic digestion of solid materials

(ISB)

  • Bruker 600 MHz –high resolution – spectrometer for liquid and semi-solid state samples (HR-MAS)
  • Bruker 400 MHz spectrometer – solid state
  • Bruker 300 MHz Spectrometer – liquid state – high resolution
  • Relaxation meter
  • Portable relaxation meter for outdoor measurements
  • HPLC-MS
  • GC and GC-MS
  • Nano HPLC
  • CE (capillary electrophoresis)
  • Horiba Jobin-Yvon Spectrofluorometer FLUOROMAX 4 (static and time-resolved fluorescence)
  • FT-IR Spectrometer Thermo Fisher Scientific, Nicolet iS10
  • Thermogravimetry: Mettler Toledo, TGA / DSC2
  • Fritch Pulvirusette Mechanochemistry Mill 9
  • 60Co Nordion GC 220 gamma Irradiator
  • Angelantoni Climate Room, Challenge 340
  • AFM Park Systems XE-100
  • KSV MiniTrough 2 (study of Langmuir Film, measurement of single layer potential, Langmuir-Blodgett films deposition system)
  • Microtox test for the assessment of the ecotoxicity of liquid and solid samples

(ISM)

  • Deposition systems:
    • MWCVD system customized from an ASTEX S-1500 CVD system (2 kW power, 2.45 GHz frequency) with a programmable automation controller National Instrument Compact RIO for 24/7 deposition.
    • Hot-Filament CVD custom system, up to 4” wafers.
    • PLD system, ArF or KrF (193 or 248 nm) pulsed laser source (Lambda Physik COMPex) (Fig 3.5, right). High Vacuum chamber, Temeprature up to 700°C.
    • Fs-laser PLD system, Ti:Sapphire pulsed laser source (Spectra Physics Spitfire Pro XP, 800 nm, 3 mJ, 100 fs) having selectable repetition rate, in the range 1-1000 Hz. High Vacuum chamber, Temperature up to 400 °C.
  • Material characterization techniques:
    • SEM Cambridge Stereoscan 360 with EDS.
    • AFM Quesant Resolver 250.
    • VTEC Spectral Photoconductivity (200-1300 nm range)
    • RAMAN SPEX-Triplemate in back-scattering geometry (laser wavelength 514.5 nm)
  • Technological processing:
    • Leybold Z400 RF and DC Sputtering deposition technique for device metallization.
    • Mask Aligner Karl Suss MA6 + Spin-coater Suss Microtech Lab. Equip.
    • Delta 10 TT/BM for photoresist deposition
    • Wire Bonder Kulicke & Soffa mod. 4123
  • Device characterization.
    • VTEC (Vacuum & Temperature Electronic Characterization), P≈10-9 torr, 77 K<T<1300 K, with Picoammeter HP4140B, dual-voltage-source (±100 V), Keithley 6517A (Electrometer), 487 (Picoammeter), 2440 (Sourcemeter), 6220 (DC Current Source), 2182 (Nanovoltmeter), 617 (Electrometer), 3390 (Arbitrary Waveform Generator), Solartron 1255, 1260 Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzers (10 μHz 32 MHz), HP4192A Impedance Analyzer (5 Hz 13 MHz)
    • Optical bar with Newport 180 – 1400 nm monochromator + Xe and deuterium lamps.
    • Angelantoni climatic chamber ACS Challenge 250, -40°C<T<+180°C, 10%<Humidity<98%
    • Yokogawa DLM2052 oscilloscope (2,5 GS/500 MHz)

(ISMN)

  • Prototype of an integrated sensor / biosensor system, ISS-CNR-UNIV.
  • Prototype of a multicellular system for measuring algal fluorescence
  • Agilent Cary Eclipse Spettrofluorometer.
  • ASAL Laminar flow vertical hood model 700
  • VDRL Model 711 / CT thermostatic dome shaker
  • RX Philips PW1729 Diffractometer
  • UV-Vis-NIR Cary 5E Spectrophotometer
  • Atomic absorption spectrometer Varian Spectra 220
  • Chemical Laboratory for the synthesis of materials and the deposition of thin films.
  • Chemical vapor deposition laboratory.
  • X-ray diffraction lab.
  • Electronic scanning and optical microscopy laboratory.
  • Laboratory of Atomic Force Microscopy.
  • Infrared Spectroscopy Laboratory.
  • Raman Spectroscopy Laboratory.
  • Photoelectrictronic Spectroscopy Laboratory.
  • Fluorescence lab.
  • UV-vis spectroscopy laboratory.